PFAS in Drinking Water — Why You Should Be Concerned 

Water poured into a clear drinking glass
PFAS, or forever chemicals, have been detected in drinking water all over the U.S. (nito100, Getty Images)

Residents across the U.S. are on high alert after the Environmental Protection Agency announced new limits for the acceptable amount of PFAS in drinking water.

PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are “forever chemicals” that don’t break down over time.

New advisories cut the safe level of PFAS in drinking water down to just four “parts per trillion” — compared to its previous 70 parts per trillion. 

Subsequently, local officials across the U.S. are addressing the presence of these forever chemicals in their water supply.

So, how did these harmful chemicals get into drinking water, and what can you do to limit your exposure? Read on.

Water droplets on water-repellent fabric
Water-repellent fabric is one of many household items that contain PFAS. (GROGL, Getty Images)

What Are PFAS?

PFAS is a term for man-made chemicals that have been used in industry and consumer products worldwide since the 1950s.

These forever chemicals are in non-stick cookware, water-repellent clothing, stain-resistant fabrics and carpets, some cosmetics, some firefighting foams, and products that resist grease, water, and oil.

While producing and using products with PFAS, the chemicals can migrate into the soil, water and air. 

Unfortunately, since they don’t break down naturally, they tend to stay in our environment.

In areas with high PFAS exposure in the environment, trace amounts of these substances are in food products, the environment, and even people and animals. 

The Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit organization that researches toxic chemicals and drinking water pollutants, says 200 million Americans could be drinking PFAS-tainted water and 99 percent of Americans may have some amount of PFAS built up in their bodies.

Non stick cooking pans hanging
Cooking in non-stick pans may expose you to PFAS. (Nordroden, Getty Images)

Risks of PFAS Exposure

Trace amounts of PFAS have been linked to numerous health issues.  

Philippe Grandjean, a Harvard researcher focusing on the long-term impacts of developmental exposure, says PFAS exposure is associated with kidney and testicular cancer, weakened immunity, endocrine disruption, fertility problems, and decreased birth weight.

People can be exposed to PFAS by:

  • Working in occupations such as firefighting or chemicals manufacturing and processing.
  • Drinking water contaminated with PFAS.
  • Eating certain foods, including fish, that may contain PFAS.
  • Swallowing contaminated soil or dust.
  • Breathing air containing PFAS.
  • Using products made with PFAS or packaged in materials containing PFAS, including coating on paper and cardboard wrappers used in fast food and bakery goods furniture and carpets, stain-proof and water-repellent clothes, and personal care and cosmetic products.

Plaque on the United States Environmental Protection Agency building in Washington, D.C.
The EPA announced a comprehensive strategy in 2021 to limit PFAS exposure. (Skyhobo, Getty Images Signature)

How Are We Combating PFAS in Drinking Water?

New studies, new food packaging, lobbying, and bills aim to limit PFAS exposure.

In October 2021, the Environmental Protection Agency launched the PFAS Roadmap. This comprehensive strategy outlines actions over the next three years, including steps to control PFAS at its sources, hold polluters accountable and address the impacts on communities.

Popcorn bags may contain PFAS — to avoid exposure, cook it on the stovetop instead. (Jamesmcq, Getty Images Signature)

How to Limit Your Exposure to PFAS 

According to Clean Water Action, you can take numerous steps to limit your exposure to PFAS.

They include: 

  • Not using non-stick cookware
  • Cooking at lower temperatures if you have to use non-stick pans 
  • Popping popcorn on the stove rather than microwaving bagged popcorn 
  • Using reusable to-go containers 
  • Using PFAS-free floss 
  • Buying untreated carpet 
  • Not using stain-resistant coatings 
  • Checking labels for PFAS 

In addition, avoid using tap water and even filtered refrigerator water for drinking and making ice.

Instead, select a water filter designed to remove the maximum number of contaminants, including PFAS — and make sure the filter specifically states that it filters PFAS.

Further Reading


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